Barth Immigrants Arriving in Philadelphia
Background on Ship Lists:
An English 1727 law required ship’s captains to provide a complete list of all passengers (the “A” list) and required all foreign males over the age of 16 take the oath of allegiance to the Crown upon arrival (the “B” list). [This applied to ships arriving in England or in any of its colonies.] Beginning 19 August 1729, males over 16 were also required to sign the oath of abjuration (the “C” list). These lists were lost (or never compiled) for ships arriving in New York, Maryland, Virginia, and North Carolina. The lists exist for 324 ships arriving in Philadelphia during the period 1727-1775.
These lists show the names of roughly half the total number of immigrants to Philadelphia. Women and children under 16 do not normally appear in the lists. The B and C lists do not include men who were sick or refused to sign. In most cases, however, the records also include the number of “freights” or full-fare passengers. (Children paid a fraction of a full-fare depending on their age, so the number of “freights” was usually less than the number of passengers.) From this data, several scholars have derived an estimate of the total number of immigrants.
About 70,000 Germans – men, women, and children – arrived at Philadelphia before the Revolution. Only about 800 arrived before 1727 - the great majority of Germans living in Pennsylvania in 1727 had not arrived at the Philadelphia port. Between 1727 and 1754 (when immigration was halted during the Seven Years War) about 58,000 Germans arrived in Philadelphia. 60% of these (35,000) arrived in the five-year period 1749-1754. Roughly another 12,000 arrived between 1763 and 1774.
Only 138 of the 324 “A” lists survived, and only 64 of those give the ages of the passengers. Only 138 of the “B” lists survive (not the same 138 as for the A lists). 314 of the 324 “C” lists survive. That makes the Joyce lists (below) very unusual.
What the Lists Mean:
The “A” lists were basically manifests, usually compiled before the ship left Europe. The lists were normally written by the English captains or crew, and the names are typically anglicized. The law did not require that the ages of passengers be listed. Women and children generally were not listed. Only 24 of the 324 A lists show all the passengers and their ages.
The “B” list was made after arrival in the Philadelphia court. The captain was required to deliver to the court all the male passengers above the age of 16. The list consists of signatures to the oath of allegiance to the Crown. Persons who could not sign had their names written by the court clerk. The oath, strictly speaking, was not required upon arrival. However, one could not own land in the colonies until taking it. Strassburger’s Volume II contains photocopies of the signatures for each list.
The “C” lists were persons signing the declaration of abjuration against the Pope and the Stuarts. Again, only males 16 and over were required to sign. This list was compiled separately, and usually by a different clerk, so some names can be different between the B and C lists. Strassburger reproduces all the actual signatures.
Persons Arriving in Philadelphia
(From Strassburger – listed in sequence of arrival date)
Unless otherwise noted, women and children under 16 are not listed on any list.
A B C
Captain’s List Oath of Allegiance Oath of Abjuration
The William and Sarah, William Hill, Master, from Rotterdam, but last from Dover. [Qualified 21 Sept 1727] Lists 1A, 1B, 1C
“Johanes Balt, Germt. 4” Johannes Barth (No oath required)
This may have been Johannes George Barth of Lancaster County, Pennsylvania. He is charged for four freights (full-fares). This would have been the fare for himself, his wife, his two children 6-12, and a child 6 or under. Several passengers have half-freights noted, one has 1/3 freights. “Germt.” probably refers to a different port of embarkation; one other passenger is also noted this way.
The Joyce, William Ford, master, from Boston [Qualified 30 November 1730] Lists 13A, 13B, 13C [List A contains all women and children on board, none named Barth]
Zech. Parte (age 15) Zacharias Barth Zacharias Barth
The Hope, Daniel Reid, Master, from Rotterdam. [Qualified August 28, 1733].
Lists 31A, 31B, 31C [List A has women and children – none associated with Jacob Bart]
Jacobes Bart (age 26) Jacob (X) Bart Jacob (X) Bart
The Mercury, William Wilson, Master, from Rotterdam and Cowes. [Qualified 29 May 1735]
List 38A, 38B, 38B
Juliane Catherine Bartin  (Not on list) (Not on list)
Apparently a single or widowed woman over 21 – if so, probably traveling with relatives. Perhaps a married woman traveling separately from her husband (a rare occurrence). No known early Barth or Bart had a wife of this name.
The Harle, Ralph Harle, Master, from Rotterdam. [Qualified 1 September 1736.]
Lists 41A, 41B, 41C
Jacob Barth (age 50) (Name missing) (Name missing)
An Catharina Barthin (age 38)
[We can identify these people as the Barths of Frederick County, Maryland – see ]
The Snow Betsey from Rotterdam and Deal, Richard Budden, Commr. [Qualified 27 Aug 1739]
Lists 70A, 70B, 70C [These names do not appear anywhere near one another on the lists. Note both signatures are slightly different.]
Hans Martin Barth Martin Barth Marthin Barth
Hans Martin Bart Hans Martin (X) Baar Hans Martin (X) Barr
The Loyal Judith. James Cowie, master, from Rotterdam [Qualified 3 September 1742]
Lists 93A, 93B, 93C [Only men over 16 are listed on the A list.]
Peter Part (age 48) Peter (B) Parth(Barth?) Peter (B) Barth
The Priscilla, William Muir, master, from Rotterdam and Cowes [Qualified 11 September 1749]
(List missing) (List missing) Jacob (X) Bart
The Patience, Hugh Steel, master, from Rotterdam [Qualified 19 September 1749]
From Palatinate and Duchy of Wirtenberg List 134C
(List missing) (List missing) Johann Ludwig Bart
[We know at least one of the other passengers, Carl Kayser, was later in Shenandoah County. John Ludwig Barth is thought to be the person of that name who married our Zach’s neighbor’s sister Christina Snapp in Frederick County, Virginia about 1755.]
The Lydia, Captn John Randolph, from Rotterdam, but last from Cowes [Qualified 9 October 1749]
(List missing) (List missing) Michael Barth
(List missing) (List missing) Michael Bareth
(List missing) (List missing) Johannes Barth
The Ship Edinburgh, James Russell, Master, from Rotterdam, last from Portsmouth [Qualified 13 August 1750]
(List missing) (List missing) Nicklaus Bard
The Nancy, Thomas Cautom, Master from Rotterdam, last from Cowes [Qualified 31 August 1750] List 153C
Joh. Jacob Barth
The Nancy, Capn. Ewing, from Rotterdam [Qualified14 September, 1754] List 215B, 215C
(List missing) William Bard Willm (X) Bard
(List missing) Francis Bard Francis (+) Bard
Two different clerks signed the B and C lists for both men.
The Prince of Wales, late from Cowes [Qualified 5 November 1764]
(List missing) (List missing) Philipp Barth
There is only one Zacharias Barth listed on the ships passenger lists to Philadelphia. Zacharias Barth, age 15, on the ship Joyce in late 1730. He might be ours.
This person is unlikely to be the same Zacharias Barth (born 1721) who was the son of Johann George Barth of Lancaster County, Pennsylvania. Johann George Barth is known to have been in Lancaster County by 1729 when he took the oath. That implies he arrived before the 1727 law requiring the oath to be taken upon arrival in Philadelphia. In 1727 his children would have been aged 6, 8, and 10. Surely he would have brought those young children with him when he emigrated. Note also that the ship on which Zacharias Barth arrived has a complete list of passengers, none of whom are associated with the Lancaster Barth family.
If our Zacharias is not the person who arrived on the Joyce (that is, if he is a third Zacharias Barth), there are five possibilities:
- He arrived before 1727. Possible, if he arrived with his parents. There were at least 20,000 Germans in Pennsylvania by 1727 who are not named on any passenger lists. He could have been a child of one of them, but we don’t have any candidates.
- He arrived when he was under the age of 16, therefore is not included on the B and C lists. This is possible, but it seems unlikely. Our Zach was surely born before 1730, and there are only a handful of known Barth immigrants who arrived before, say, 1740 when our Zach could still have been under 16. See the separate list of passengers.
- He arrived as an adult on a ship whose lists were lost. Or he was sick or absent when the oaths were taken. Unlikely but possible. At least one list exists for over 95% of the ships to Philadelphia. The number of absent adult male passengers when the oaths were taken is probably no more than 5%.
- He arrived in a port other than Philadelphia. Worth considering. Pennsylvania drew the bulk of 18th century Germans, but some landed in Baltimore, Annapolis, and New York. We know that people who arrived in Maryland ports and New York were later found in the Shenandoah Valley. We also know that some of the ships on which Barths appear landed at both Philadelphia and other ports, depending on the year.
- He was born in the colonies
and moved into Virginia from another colony. Unlikely, but possible that he was from New York or another Dutch
 A Collection of Thirty Thousand Names of German, Swiss, Dutch, French, and Other Immigrants in Pennsylvania from 1727-1776, Israel Rupp, (1856, reprinted 1875, 1931, 1966).
 Pennsylvania German Pioneers: A Publication of the Original Lists of Arrivals in the Port of Philadelphia from 1727-1808, Ralph B. Strassburger, ed. By William J. Hinke, 3 volumes (1934)
 Nearly 20,000 Germans were in Pennsylvania by 1727, but very few of these had arrived at the Philadephia port. Estimates are that about 5,000 Germans had immigrated to other ports and by 1727 their descendants number about 20,000. Some of these had migrated from New York.
 A summary of the calculations of a variety of scholars is summarized in “The Flow and Composition of German Immigration to Philadelphia, 1727-1775”, Marianne Wokeck, Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography, July 1981, pages 249-278.
 The ship actually arrived three days earlier according to List A. One of the few A lists with an actual arrival date.
 This person signed as “Barth” on the B list. The A list was clearly written by an Englishman, as all the names are anglicized. The “4” in this list is the number of freights. The precise relationship between freights and people is unknown but there is evidence that shippers charged no freight for small children 6 or under, half-freights for older children up to 12 or so, and full freights for teenagers and women. The “Germt” is unclear, but from context is apparently a reference to a different port of embarkation than the other passengers.
 Her name appears on the A list among the names of adult women. None of the men, women, or children have similar surnames. The passengers apparently composed the Goshenhoppen colony.
 Children are not listed on this A list. This person is surely the Jacob Barth who married Anna Catherina (Sebastian) Seidleman. Her child by the prior marriage, age 17, is also on the list. Their children under 16 are not listed, but are known to have included Peter Barth and Susanna Catharina Barth. The latter married in 1753 to Andreas Vogle whose family was on the same ship. All these families moved from Philadelphia to Frederick County, Maryland sometime after 1753. Jacob Barth was from Freinsheim, Pfalz, Germany.
 Coincidently, Michael and Elizabeth Traughber, the ancestors of Mary Traughber that would later marry George Washington Baird, arrived o nthe same ship in 1751. The
 Israel Rupp has this as 9 January 1729 but Annette Burgert has it as after the 1735 act. Were there two people with that name?